Strips of whalebone could also be put up the back, down side and front to give the dress more structure. Corsets were meant to be rigid to hide layers of underwear including chemises, drawers and a petticoat which were all worn underneath. With the development of the sewing machine in the early 1850s, there was a mass production of clothes including underwear. this meant that corsets could be produced at a faster rate. The artificial cage crinoline made its first appearance in June 1856 as a welcome and practical alternative. It was made of steel hoops which increased in diameter at the bottom and was suspended on cotton tapes. The design was strong enough to support skirts and create the bell shaped effect ( V & A, 2015:5).